An updated checklist of Thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) of Sikkim


  • Department of Zoology, Manipur University, Imphal 795003, India
  • Department of Zoology, Manipur University, Imphal 795003, India
  • ICAR-National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources, Bengaluru 560024, India
  • Department of Zoology, Manipur University, Imphal 795003, India



Thrips, checklist, Sikkim, survey, pest.


Systematic surveys of thrips were undertaken during 2019-2022 with specific reference to Khangchendzonga National Park in order to understand the species richness of this World heritage habitat. The study revealed presence of 56 species in Sikkim. The suborder Tubulifera is represented by 24 species which can be grouped into 14 genera under two subfamilies such as Phlaeothripinae and Idolothripinae in Phlaeothripidae. Similarly, the collection records have indicated as many as 32 species of terebrantians under Thripidae. All the above said 32 thripids belong to 20 genera which are grouped within four subfamilies, with the lion’s share of 25 species in Thripinae, followed by 5 Panchaetothripines, and one each of Dendrothripinae and Sericothripinae. Analysis of the species composition in terms of their feeding habit and habitat reflected that 83% of the thrips are phytophagous, 13% mycophagous and 4% obligate predators. From amongst the phytophagous forms, 27 are phyllophilous, 17 flower dwelling anthophilous species, and 4 poephilous. A close scrutiny also revealed the presence of pests, of which Sciothrips cardamomi Ramakrishna, Thrips palmi Karny, and Ceratothripoides claratris Shumsher are notable pests with appreciable economic importance.


Download data is not yet available.




How to Cite

Songomsing Chiru, T. D., Johnson, T., Rachana, R. R., & Varatharajan, R. (2023). An updated checklist of Thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) of Sikkim. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, 123(2S), 671–678.


Amutha M, Rachana R R. 2022. Species diversity of thrips on cotton. Indian Journal of Entomology Online published Ref. No. e21262.

Ananthakrishnan T N. 1984. Bioecology of Thrips. Indira Publishing House, USA. pp.205.

Ananthakrishnan T N, Sen S. 1980. Taxonomy of Indian Thysanoptera. Handbook series No.1, Zoological survey of India. pp.234.

Ananthakrishnan T N. 1993. Bionomics of Thrips. Annual Review of Entomology. 38: 71-92.

Anonymous 2000. Sikkim soils prepared and published by National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (ICAR), Nagpur, Regional Centre, Calcutta, in cooperation with Department of Agriculture, Department of Forest, Government of Sikkim.

Bhatti J S. 1980. Species of the genus Thrips from India (Thysanoptera). Systematic Entomology 5: 109-166.

Bhatti J S. 1997. Fauna of Delhi, State Fauna Series - Thysanoptera. Zoological Survey of India 6: 291–324.

Bhatti J S. 1999. New characters for identification of pest species Thrips florum and Thrips hawaiiensis. Thrips, (1): 259-266.

Champion H G and Seth S K. 1968. A Revised Survey of the Forest Types of India. Manager of Publication, Government of India, Delhi.

Chiru Songomsing Th D, Thang Johnson, Rachana R R and Varatharajan R. 2023. Thrips fauna of Khangchendzonga National Park, Sikkim with first description of hitherto unknown male Smilothrips productus Bhatti. Indian Journal of Entomology.

Chhetri D R. 2005. Ethnomedicinal plants of the Khangchendzonga National Park, Sikkim, India. Ethnobotany. Vol (17): 96- 103.

Dang L H, Mound L A and Qiao G X. 2014. Conspectus of the Phlaeothripinae genera from China and Southeast Asia (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae). Zootaxa 3807(1): 001–082.

Lavkumar K. 1980. Khangchendjunga, WWF-India newsletter; 33: 8-10.

Mound L A. (1996). The Thysanoptera vector species of tospoviruses. Acta Horticulturae 431: 298–309.

Mound L A. 2005. Thysanoptera - Diversity and Interactions. Annual Review of Entomology 50: 247–269.

Mound L A and Minaei K. 2007. Australian thrips of the Haplothrips lineage (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Journal of Natural History 41(45-48): 2919-2978.

Mound L A and Ng Y F. 2009. An illustrated key to the genera of Thripinae (Thysanoptera) from South East Asia. Zootaxa 2265: 27-47.

Mound L A and Terry. 2001. Pollination of the central Australian cycad, Macrozamia macdonnellii by a new species of basal clade thrips (Thysanoptera). International Journal of Plant Sciences 162: 147–154.

Mani M S. 1974. Biogeographical evolution in India. Monographiae Biologicae book series. Volume (23): 698–724.

Olson & Dinerstein. 1998. The Global 200: A Representation Approach to Conserving the Earth’s Most Biologically Valuable Ecoregions. Conservation Biology. Vol. 12, No. 3: 502-515.

Palmer J M, Mound L A and du Heaume G J. 1989. CIE guides to insects of importance to man. 2. Thysanoptera. Wallingford: CAB Int. 73 pp.

Raman A & Ananthakrishnan T N. 1984. Biology of gall thrips (Thysanoptera: Insecta), pp. 107–127. In: Ananthakrishnan T N. (ed.). Biology of Gall Insects. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co, New Delhi.

Rachana R R and Varatharajan R. 2017. A new species of the genus Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) from the Western Ghats of India. Zootaxa 4221(4): 491–493.

Sen S, Pramanik N K and Sengupta C K. 1988. Thysanoptera fauna of north eastern India. Records of Zoological Survey of India, Occasional Paper 100: 1–123.

Sathyakumar S, Bashir T, Bhattacharya T & Poudyal K. 2011. Assessing mammal distribution and abundance in intricate eastern Himalayan habitats of Khangchendzonga, Sikkim, India. Mammalia 75(3): 257-268.

Sathyakumar S, Bashir T, Bhattacharya T, Poudyal K & Manjari Roy. 2014. Precarious status of the Endangered dhole Cuon alpinus in the high elevation Eastern Himalayan habitats of Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, Sikkim, India. Oryx, Volume 48, Issue 1, January 2014: 125-132.

Tambe S. 2007. Ecology and management of the alpine landscape in the Khangchendzonga National Park, Sikkim Himalaya. PhD thesis. FRI University, Dehradun, India.

ThripsWiki. 2023. Thrips Wiki— providing information on the World thrips. Accessed online at Page [accessed on 7 February, 2023].

Tyagi K and Kumar V. 2016. Thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) of India: An Updated Checklist. Halteres 7: 64–98.

Varatharajan R. 2005. Faunistic Diversity of Thrips (Thysanoptera) of North Eastern India. Silver Jubilee Publication of Manipur University.73 pp.

Varatharajan R, Maisnam S, Shimray C V and Rachana R R. 2016. Pollination potential of Thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) - an overview. Zoo’s Print XXXI (4): 6–12.