Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of Indian Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) using Mitochondrial D-loop
Keywords:Macaques; Populations; Expansion; D-loop; Clade.
Indian Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are non-human primates having a wide range of distribution in India. Rhesus macaques are distributed throughout Northern India and Northeast India up to some extent part of South India. In this study, we investigated the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of Indian rhesus macaques in comparison with macaques from other countries using the mitochondrial D-loop region. A total of 61 DNA sequences were generated from five Indian states and compared with 46 sequences from China, Thailand, Japan, and Bangladesh from GenBank. A total of 40 haplotypes were identified in studied samples. The median-joining network showed clustering based on different geographic locations. The Phylogenetic analysis shows two major clades in which the Indian rhesus macaques formed a single clade. There was no geographical cluster found in studied samples. The mismatch and Bayesian skyline plot show recent expansion in the Indian rhesus macaque population. Our results show that the Indian rhesus macaque is undergoing expansion in the population.