Description of two new species of Amolops (Anura: Ranidae) from Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India under the morphological 'Viridimaculatus species group'


  • Zoological Survey of India, North Eastern Regional Centre, Shillong - 793003, Meghalaya
  • Department of Biotechnology, St. Anthony’s College, Shillong - 793001, Meghalaya
  • Zoological Survey of India, Western Regional Centre, Vidyanagar, Pune - 411044, Maharashtra
  • Zoological Survey of India, Western Regional Centre, Vidyanagar, Pune - 411044, Maharashtra
  • Zoological Survey of India, North Eastern Regional Centre, Shillong - 793003, Meghalaya



Amolops chanakya sp. nov., Amolops tawang sp. nov., Cascade Frogs, Chanakya, Cryptic Species, Dirang, Eastern Himalaya, Tawang


With the descriptions of a large number of Amolops species in the last two decades, the historical reports of Amolops species from India are in a state of flux, resulting in doubts regarding the specific identities of many species of this genus from the country. Due to their morphological crypticity, species belonging to Amolops are most often difficult to identify based only on morphological characters and colour alone. In the recent years, a number of species of this genus have either been described or reported from India, based on both morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies, like Amolops aniqiaoensis, A. adicola, A. indoburmanensis, etc. Herein, we are describing two new species of Amolops, namely Amolops chanakya sp. nov. and Amolops tawang sp. nov. from western Arunachal Pradesh that belong to the morphological ‘Viridimaculatus species group’ based on a combination of morphological character data sets, genetic studies, and geographical distribution.


Download data is not yet available.




How to Cite

Saikia, B., Laskar, M. A., Dinesh, K. P., Shabnam, A., & Sinha, B. (2022). Description of two new species of <i>Amolops</i> (Anura: Ranidae) from Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India under the morphological <i>’Viridimaculatus</i> species group’. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, 122(3), 247–266.





Ao, J.M., Bordoloi, S. and Ohler, A. 2003. Amphibian fauna of Nagaland with nineteen new records from the state including five new records for India. Zoos’ Print Journal, Coimbatore, India, 18: 1117–1125.

Anderson, J. 1871. A list of the reptilian accession to the Indian Museum, Calcutta from 1865 to 1870, with a description of some new species. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 40: 12–39.

Annandale, N. 1912. Zoological results of the Abor expedition (Batrachia). Records of the Indian Museum, 8: 7-59. https://doi. org/10.5962/bhl.part.1186

Athreya, R. 2006. Eaglenest Biodiversity Project (2003–2006): Conservation Resources for Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary, Kaati Trust, Pune, India, 1-189.

Boulenger, G.A. 1888. Descriptions of two new Indian species of Rana. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series, 6(2): 506–508.

Biju, S.D., Mahony, S. and Kamei, R.G. 2010. Description of two new species of torrent frog, Amolops Cope (Anura: Ranidae) from a degrading forest in the northeast Indian state of Nagaland. Zootaxa, 2408: 31–46.

Cai, H.X., Che, J., Pang, J.F., Zhao, E.M. and Zhang, Y.P. 2007. Paraphyly of Chinese Amolops (Anura, Ranidae) and phylogenetic position of the rare Chinese frog Amolops tormotus. Zootaxa, 1531: 49–55.

Chanda, S.K. 1987. On a collection of anuran amphibians from Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas, with description of a new species of Rana (Ranidae). Journal of the Bengal Natural History Society, New Series, 5: 140–151.

Chen, L., Murphy, R.W., Lathrop, A. Ngo, A., Orlov, N.L., Ho, C.T. and Somorjai, I.L. 2005. Taxonomic chaos in Asian ranid frogs: an initial phylogenetic resolution. Journal of Herpetology, 15: 231–243.

Dever, J.A., Fuiten, A.M., Konu, O. and Wilkinson, J.A. 2012. Cryptic Torrent Frogs of Myanmar: An examination of the Amolops marmoratus species complex with the resurrection of Amolops afghanus and the identification of a new species. Copeia, 2012: 57–76.

Edgar, R.C. 2004. MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. Nucleic Acids Research, 32: 1792– 1797.

Frost, D.R. 2022. Amphibian Species of the World: An Online Reference. Version 6.1. American Museum of Natural History, New York. <>. (Accessed on 10 March, 2022).

Grosjean, S., Ohler, A., Chuaynkern, Y., Cruaud, C. and Hassanin, A. 2015. Improving biodiversity assessment of anuran amphibians using DNA barcoding of tadpoles. Case studies from Southeast Asia. Comptes rendus biologies, 338(5): 351-361. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.crvi.2015.03.015

Gunther, A.C.L.G. 1876. Third report on collections of Indian reptiles obtained by the British Museum. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1875: 567–577.

Jiang, K., J.-L., Ren, Z.-T., Lyu, Wang, D., Wang, Z., Lv, K., Wu, J.-W. and Li, J.-T. 2021. Taxonomic revision of Amolops chunganensis (Pope, 1929) (Amphibia: Anura) and description of a new species from southwestern China, with discussion on Amolops monticola group and assignment of species groups of the genus Amolops. Zoological Research, 42: 574–591. issn.2095-8137.2021.107

Khatiwada, J. R., Shu, G.-C., Wang, B., Zhao, T., Xie, F. and Jiang, J.-P. 2020. Description of a new species of Amolops Cope, 1865 (Amphibia: Ranidae) from Nepal and nomenclatural validation of Amolops nepalicus Yang, 1991. Asian Herpetological Research, 11: 71–95.

Lalronunga, S., Vanramliana, Lalrinchhana, C., Vanlalhrima, Sailo, V., Lalnunhlua, Sailo, L., Zosangliana, I., Lalhmangaiha, K. and Lalhmingliani, E. 2020. DNA barcoding reveals a new country record for three species of frogs (Amphibia: Anura) from India, Science Vision, 20(3): 106-117.

Lyu, Z.T., Wu, J., Wang, J., Sung, Y.H., Liu, Z.Y., Zeng, Z.C., Wang, X., Li, Y.Y. and Wang, Y.Y. 2018. A new species of Amolops (Anura: Ranidae) from Southwestern Guangdong, China. Zootaxa, 4418(6): 562-576.

Lyu, Z.T., Huang, L.S., Wang, J., Li, Y.Q., Chen, H.H., Qi, S. and Wang, Y.Y. 2019. Description of two cryptic species of the Amolops ricketti group (Anura, Ranidae) from Southeastern China. ZooKeys, 812: 133-156.

Matsui, M., Shimada, T., Liu, W.Z., Maryati, M., Khonsue, W. and Orlov, N. 2006. Phylogenetic relationships of Oriental torrent frogs in the genus Amolops and its allies (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 38(3): 659-666. https://

Orlov, N., Murphy, R., Liu, W., Ngo, A. and Lathrop, A. 2006. The phylogenetic relationships of the Chinese and Vietnamese waterfall frogs of the genus Amolops. Amphibia-Reptilia, 27(1): 81-92.

Palumbi, S.R, P.A. Martin, L.S. Romano, O.W. McMillan, L. Stice, and G. Grabowski. 2002. The Simple fool’s guide to PCR Ver. 2.0. Honolulu. Special Publications Department of Zoology, University of Hawaii, USA, 1-45.

Patel, N.G., Garg, S., Das, A., Stuart, B.L. and Biju, S.D. 2021. Phylogenetic position of the poorly known montane cascade frog Amolops monticola (Ranidae) and description of a new closely related species from Northeast India. Journal of Natural History, London, 55: 1403-1440.

Pawar, S. and Birand, A. 2001. A survey of amphibians, reptiles and birds in northeast India. CERC Technical Report No. 6, Center for Ecological Research and Conservation, Mysore, India, 1-118.

Ray, P. 1992. Two new hill-stream frogs of the genus Amolops Cope (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae) from Uttar Pradesh (India). Indian Journal of Forestry, 15: 346–350.

Saikia, B., Laskar, M.A., Debnath, M., Das, H. and Kharkongor, I.J. 2021. A Hibernaculum of Two Rachophorid Species from India. Reptiles and Amphibians, 28: 520–524.

Saikia, B., Laskar, M.A., Sinha, B., Debnath, M., Sengupta, S., Das, H., Shabnam, A., Kharkongor, I.J. and Dinesh, K.P. 2022. Confirmed Report of the Aniqiao Torrent Frog, Amolops aniqiaoensis (Anura: Ranidae), from India, with Additional Distributional Records for Two Other Indian Species of Amolops, Reptiles and Amphibians, 29: 214–224.

Saikia, U. and Das, A. 2017. In: Fauna of Tawang, Arunachal Pradesh. Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, India. Herpetofauna, pp. 199–210.

Sarma, K.P., Sharma, R. and Mazumdar, N. 2017. Geological framework of Western Arunachal Himalaya and Eastern Arunachal Himalaya - Are they identical? Some observations. American International Journal of Research in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, 19(1): 51-58.

Sengupta, S., Hussain, B., Choudhury, P.K., Gogoi, J., Ahmed, M.F. and Choudhury, N.K. 2008. A new species of Amolops (Anura: Ranidae) from Assam, north-eastern India, Hamadryad, 32: 5–12.

Silvestro, D., and Michalak, I. 2012. “raxmlGUI: a graphical front-end for RAxMLâ€. Organisms Diversity and Evolution, 12(4): 335-337.

Stuart, B.L., Bain, R.H., Phimmachak, S. and Spence, K. 2010. Phylogenetic systematics of the Amolops monticola group (Amphibia: Ranidae), with description of a new species from northwestern Laos. Herpetologica, 66: 52–66.

Stucky, B.J. 2012. SeqTrace: A Graphical Tool for Rapidly Processing DNA Sequencing Chromatograms. Journal of Biomolecular Techniques, 23: 90–93.

Sung, Y.H., Hu, P., Wang, J., Liu, H.J. and Wang, Y.Y. 2016. A new species of Amolops (Anura: Ranidae) from southern China. Zootaxa, 4170(3): 525-538. PMID: 27701240.

Tamura K., Stecher, G. and Kumar, S. 2021. MEGA 11: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 11. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 38(7): 3022-3027.

Warren, C.J., A.K. Singh, N.M.W. Roberts, D. Regis, A.M. Halton, and R.B. Singh. 2014. Timing and conditions of peak metamorphism and cooling across the Zimithang Thrust, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Lithos, 200–201: 94-110. lithos.2014.04.005

Wu, Y. H., F. Yan, B.L. Stuart, E. Prendini, C. Suwannapoom, H.A. Dahn, B.L. Zhang, H.X. Cai, Y.B. Xu, K. Jiang, H.M. Chen, A.R. Lemmon, E.M. Lemmon, C.J. Raxworthy, N.L. Orlov, R.W. Murphy, and J. Che. 2020. A combined approach of mitochondrial DNA and anchored nuclear phylogenomics sheds light on unrecognized diversity, phylogeny, and historical biogeography of the torrent frogs, genus Amolops (Anura: Ranidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 148: 106789. ympev.2020.106789

Yu, G., Wu, Z. and Yang, J. 2019. A new species of the Amolops monticola group (Anura: Ranidae) from southwestern Yunnan, China. Zootaxa, 4577: 548–560.

Yuan, Z., Jin, J., Li, J., Stuart, B.L. and Wu, J. 2018. A new species of cascade frog (Amphibia: Ranidae) in the Amolops monticola group from China. Zootaxa, 4415: 498–512.

Zhang, Y., Rowley, J.J.L., Liu, X., Nguyen, T.T., Nguyen, H.Q., Tapley, B., Nguyen, L.T., Yang, Y., Cutajar, T.P., Zhang, Y. and Yuan, Z.- Y. 2021. Amolops caelumnoctis Rao and Wilkinson, 2007, a junior synonym of A. splendissimus Orlov and Ho, 2007 (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae). Zootaxa, 5057: 181–200.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 > >>